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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-19

Smoked cooked meat as a risk factor for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A case control study among Saudi populations

1 Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Alhada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3 Department of Otolaryngology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Khalid Hakami
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Alhada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif; P.O.Box 6667, Taif 21944
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-8491.273914

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Background: Head and neck cancers constitute about 6% of malignancies diagnosed annually in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and represent 33% of these are of nasopharyngeal origin. The epidemiological studies of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggested that factors like viral agents, dietary factors and genetic susceptibility have a major role to play in the disease etiology. Objective: To investigate the possible roles of smoked cooked meat (like Mandi which is traditional dish in Saudi Arabia) in the development of NPC. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study included 43 incident cases of NPC and 84 control subjects was carried out at Otorhino laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery department at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia, throughout the period 2014-2015. All information on dietary, environmental, social, and demographic factors was collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis using maximum likelihood method was used to analyze data. Results: The study included 43 cases with confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 84 age and sex matched control subjects. Most of cases 29 (67.4%) were presented with neck mass whereas the remaining 14 (32.6%) presented with otitis media. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that smokers were at almost 3-fold risk to develop nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared to non-smokers (Adjusted “AOR”=3.05; 95% confidence intervals: 1.37-6.79) and consumption of smoked meat as participants consumed it on weekly or monthly bases were at highly significant risk to develop NPC compared to those who never consumed it (AOR=9.32; 95% CI: 1.12—77.39 and 14.44; 95% CI: 1.71-121.81. respectively) [Table 2].However, consumption of Canned Fava beans and Arabic Coffee were not found to be associated with NPC. Conclusion: The rate of consumption of meats was increased in the last tow decades among Saudi population. The N-nitrosamines (NA) is a large group of compounds of which many are carcinogenic. In many studies, the nitrosamines were detected as high level in smoked meat. The results from this study suggested that consumption of smoked cooked meat and cigarette smoking is independent risk factors for NPC in Saudi Arabia.

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