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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Effect of vaccination on coronavirus disease 2019-related olfactory dysfunction

1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
2 Medical Intrern, Students, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of ENT, King Fahd Central Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ibrahim Sumaily
Department of ENT, King Fahd Central Hospital, Jazan
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjoh.sjoh_58_22

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Background: Hyposmia and anosmia are the reduced ability and inability to perceive odors, respectively. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus that was first detected in late 2019 in China and has spread globally since mid-February 2020. Olfactory dysfunction (OD), such as anosmia or hyposmia, is an important early indicator of COVID-19. Objective: This study aimed to compare the incidence and duration of COVID-19-related hyposmia before and after vaccination. Design: This was cross-sectional study. Setting: Jazan region, February–July 2022. Patients and Methods: Data were collected from the adult population of the Jazan region using a self-administered questionnaire in the Arabic language. Data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between groups while the Chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Main Outcome Measures: The incidence and duration of COVID-19-related OD before and after vaccination. Sample Size: The sample size was 466. Results: Of the 510 respondents, 466 met the study criteria. OD just after receiving the vaccines was reported by 53 (12.2%) participants. COVID-19 was confirmed in 268 participants (52.5%; 118 men and 150 women); of these, 163 (60.8%) had OD and 144 (53.7%) reported taste dysfunction. OD was more frequent in women than in men (66.7% vs. 53.4%, P = 0.03) and was the only symptom in 10 respondents (3.7%). OD was less frequent in postvaccination infection (54.9% vs. 73.8%, P = 0.003). Moreover, the OD duration was significantly shorter in postvaccination COVID-19 infection (improvement in the 1st week, 66.3% vs. 33.9%, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Among patients with COVID-19, OD occurs less frequently in men and after vaccination, and the duration is shorter after vaccination. Limitations: This study was limited by the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and small number of respondents with common chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.

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